Evaluation of the Distribution of Terrain Roughness Index for Terrestrial Line of Site Microwave Links in Uyo Metropolis

Akinloye Bolanle Eunice, Simeon Ozuomba, Isaac A. Ezenugu


In this paper, the distribution of terrain roughness index in Uyo metropolis is presented. The path (elevation) profiles of various regions or areas in Uyo are captured and then used to compute the terrain roughness index. According to the results, the terrain roughness index of the five signal paths studied within Uyo metropolis are 5.12m, 8.13m, 17.08, 18.63m and 21.11m. Generally, terrain roughness index less than 50ft or 15m is considered smooth terrain whereas those above 50ft or 15m are considered rough terrain. Therefore, among the five paths considered in this study, two paths smooth terrains while three paths are rough terrains of varying degrees of roughness. In all, Uyo metropolis has both smooth and rough terrains which will present different degrees of multipath fading for wireless signals.


terrain roughness index; path profile; elevation profile; multipath fading; geoclimatic factor

Full Text:



Agba, B. L., Ben-Sik-Ali, O., Morin, R., & Bergeron, G. (2011). Recent Evolution of ITU Method for Prediction of Multipath Fading on Terrestrial Microwave Links. Session 3P7 RF and Wireless Communication, Multipath, 857.

Göktas, P. (2015). Analysis and implementation of prediction models for the design of fixed terrestrial point-to-point systems (Doctoral dissertation, Bilkent University).

Goktas, P., Altvntas, A., Topcu, S., & Karasan, E. (2014, August). The effect of terrain roughness in the microwave line-of-sight multipath fading estimation based on Rec. ITU-R P. 530-15. In General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (URSI GASS), 2014 XXXIth URSI (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Ugwu, E. B. I., Umeh, M. C., & Ugonabo, O. J. (2015). Microwave propagation attenuation due to earth’s atmosphere at very high frequency (VHF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF) bands in Nsukka under a clear air condition. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 10(11), 359-363.

Seybold, J. S. (2005). Introduction to RF propagation. John Wiley & Sons.

ITU, (2001) Recommendation ITU-R P.530-9, Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial line-of-sight systems, Geneva, ITU, 2001.

Asiyo, M. O., & Afullo, T. J. O. (2013). Statistical estimation of fade depth and outage probability due to multipath propagation in Southern Africa. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, 46, 251-274.

Odedina, P. K., & Afullo, T. J. (2009). Multipath propagation modelling and measurement in a clean-air environment for LOS link design application. In Southern Africa Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference Proceedings.

Kumar, M. P. S., Sumithra, M. G., & Sarumathi, M. M. (2013). Performance Evaluation of Rayleigh Multipath Fading Channel using Rectangular QAM schemes, IJCSMC, Vol. 2, Issue. 5, May 2013, pg.346-352.

Freeman, R. L. (2005). Fundamentals of telecommunications (Vol. 92). John Wiley & Sons.

Freeman, R. L. (2002). Reference manual for telecommunications engineering, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation.

Barnett W. T., (1972) Multipath propagation at 4, 6 and 11 GHz, Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 321-361, February 1972.

Vigants A., (1975) Space diversity engineering, Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 103-142, January 1975.

Morita K., (1970) Prediction of Rayleigh fading occurrence probability of lineof- sight microwave links, Rev. Elec. Commun. Lab., vol. 18, pp. 810-821, Nov.-Dec. 1970.

ITU (2013) Recommendation ITU-R P.530-15, Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial line-of-sight systems," International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, 2013.


  • There are currently no refbacks.
We use cookies.