Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Frequency on the Radius of Curvature of Single and Double Rounded Edge Hill Obstruction

Aneke Chikezie, Mfonobong Charles Uko, Swinton C. Nwokonko


In this paper, comparative analysis of the impact of frequency on the radius of curvature of single and double rounded edge hill obstruction is studied, particularly when the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommendation 526 version 13 method is used to compute the radius of curvature. The study is conducted with two  path profiles of  microwave links, one  with isolated  single edged hilltop and a second profile  with isolated  double edged hilltop. The frequencies considered are  from the 1.5 GHz in the L-band   to 36GHz in the K-band. The radius of curvature decreases with frequency in the case of single edged hilltop whereas the radius of curvature increases with frequency in the case of double edge hilltop. Essentially, other factors are responsible for determining whether the radius of curvature will increase or decrease with frequency.  One of such factors is the occultation distance. For all the frequencies considered, the occultation distance is 80.923 m for the single edged hilltop and 532.203m for the double edged hilltop. Further studies are therefore required to ascertain the factors that determine the exact impact of frequency on the radius of curvature for rounded edge obstructions.


Radius of Curvature; Rounded Edge Obstruction; ITU 526-13 Method; Occultation Distance; Double Edged Hilltop; Single Edged Hilltop; Fresnel Zone; Radius of Fresnel Zone

Full Text:



Sarkar, T. K., Ji, Z., Kim, K., Medouri, A., & Salazar-Palma, M. (2003). A survey of various propagation models for mobile communication. IEEE Antennas and propagation Magazine, 45(3), 51-82.

Sasaki, M., Inomata, M., Yamada, W., Kita, N., Onizawa, T., & Nakatsugawa, M. (2016). Channel Model Considering Frequency Dependency Based on Propagation Measurements with Multiple Frequencies for 5G Systems. In European Wireless 2016; 22th European Wireless Conference; Proceedings of (pp. 1-6). VDE.

Ichikawa, K., Wang, H., Sato, K., & Fujii, T. (2015). Height power estimation with Radio Environment Database in urban area. In Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN), 2015 Seventh International Conference on (pp. 935-937). IEEE.

Pan, H., Qiuming, Z., Cuiwei, X., Xueqiang, C., & Yu, H. (2014). Path loss prediction over lunar surface with obstacle diffraction. In Advanced Research and Technology in Industry Applications (WARTIA), 2014 IEEE Workshop on (pp. 1276-1279). IEEE.

Han, T., Kuang, Z., Wang, H., & Li, X. (2015). Study on the multiple diffraction for UWB signals under NLOS environment in WSNs. In 2015 International Conference on Intelligent Systems Research and Mechatronics Engineering. Atlantis Press, 1369-1373.

Rampa, V., Savazzi, S., Nicoli, M., & D’Amico, M. (2015). Physical modeling and performance bounds for device-free localization systems. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 22(11), 1864-1868.

Graham, A., Kirkman, N. C., & Paul, P. M. (2007). Mobile radio network design in the VHF and UHF bands: a practical approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Barué, G. (2008). Microwave engineering: land & space radiocommunications (Vol. 9). John Wiley & Sons.

Jennings, J. K., & McGruder III, C. H. (1999). Comparison of the Disk Diffraction Pattern with the Straight-Edge Diffraction Pattern in Occultations. The Astronomical Journal, 118(6), 3061-3067.

Aragon-Zavala, A. (2008). Antennas and propagation for wireless communication systems. John Wiley & Sons.

Argota, J. A. R., Machado, M. M., Iglesias, I., & Ustamujic, S. (2012) Characterization tools for estimate radar signals with partial obstructions. ERAD 2012 - THE SEVENTH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON RADAR IN METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLOGY.

Östlin, E. (2009). On Radio Wave Propagation Measurements and Modelling for Cellular Mobile Radio Networks (Doctoral dissertation, Blekinge Institute of Technology).

Gálvez, A. M. (2009) Calculation of the coverage area of mobile broadband communications. Focus on land. Master’s Thesis Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Electronics and Telecommunications.

Pollock, P. (2001). A Model to Predict Diffraction Attenuation Resulting from Signal Propagation Over Terrain in Low Earth Orbit Satellite Systems (No. AFIT/GSO/ENG/01M-01). AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT.

International Telecommunication Union, “Recommendation ITU-R P.526-13: “Propagation by diffraction”, Geneva, 2013

Lagunas, E., Sharma, S. K., Maleki, S., Chatzinotas, S., & Ottersten, B. (2015). Impact of Terrain Aware Interference Modeling on the Throughput of Cognitive Ka-Band Satellite Systems. In Ka and Broadband Communications Conference (KaConf), Bologna, Italy, Oct 2015.


  • There are currently no refbacks.